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Number input

Number input lets users enter a numeric value and incrementally increase or decrease the value with a two-segment control.


Number inputs are similar to text inputs, but are used to specify only a numeric value. Number inputs incrementally increase or decrease the value with a two-segment control. Number input reduces input efforts for adjusting small values.

number input image

When to use

  • The user needs to input a numeric value
  • Adjusting small values when increasing or decreasing them requires only a few clicks
  • When users may not know exact values and only want to change the values that are relative to its current state

When not to use

  • It is best practice not to use number input if large value changes are expected. For example, when the value sets from 1 to 30, number input is not a great option because it requires many clicks to reach 30. In this case, use slider when numeric values are large or when there is a wide range of numeric options.
  • It is also best to avoid number input for continuous variables such as prices, distances, lengths, or human heights. When the exact value is important to specify within a wide range, use text input instead.

Live demo

helperText="Optional helper text"
invalidText="Number is not valid"
label="Number input label"



number input anatomy
  1. Label: Text that informs the user about the content they need to enter in the field. It is required unless you get an approved accessibility exemption.
  2. Numeric value: The value changes when user enters a value into the field or uses the subtract or add controls.
  3. Helper text: Assistive text that can provide additional aid or context to the user. Often used to explain the correct data format.
  4. Field: The container in which a user enters data.
  5. Subtract icon: This icon triggers decremental values.
  6. Add icon: This icon triggers incremental values.
  7. Status icon: Indicates the state of the number input, either error or warning.
  8. Error or Warning text: It replaces the helper text when an error or warning state appears.


Number input has three sizes in height: small, medium, and large. The width varies in size based on content, layout, and design.

SizeHeight (px/rem)Use case
Small (sm)32 / 2Use when space is constricted or when placing a number input in a form that is long and complex.
Medium (md)40 / 2.5This is the default size and the most commonly used size. When in doubt, use the medium size.
Large (lg)48 / 3Use when there is a lot of space to work with. The large size is typically used in simple forms or when a number input is placed by itself on a page.
number input sizes


Main elements


  • Always include a label so that users know how to complete the field
  • Keep the label short and concise
  • Use sentence-style capitalization for the label
Do include a label

Do include a label

Do not hide label

Do not hide a label that helps user understand the context of number input

Helper text

  • Indicates the input value if it has a maximum or minimum
  • Helper text is optional but if present will be replaced by warning and error messages when needed

Overflow content

Label, numeric value, and helper text should be short and not exceed two lines.



The number input has a series of states for both field and controls elements: enabled, hover, focus, error, warning, and disabled.

StateWhen to use
EnabledWhen the number input is live but a user is not directly interacting with it. This is commonly referred to as the default or normal state of the component. An enabled number input field should contain a default value.
HoverWhen a user’s mouse cursor is hovering over the field or the button controls.
FocusWhen a user tabs to or clicks on the number input, the field or controls become focused, indicating the user has successfully navigated to the component.
ErrorWhen the required number input has not been filled in. It can also be triggered due to a system error. This state requires a user response before data can be submitted or saved.
WarningWhen you need to call the user’s attention to an exception condition. The condition might not be an error but can cause problems if not resolved.
DisabledWhen the user is not allowed to interact with the number input due to either permissions, dependencies, or pre-requisites. The disabled state completely removes the interactive function from a component. The styling is not subject to WCAG contrast compliance.
SkeletonUse on an initial page load to indicate that the number input has not yet fully loaded.
Read-onlyComing soon!
number input interactive states



Users can click on the input field and change the value by typing inside the input field. Users can also increase or decrease the values by pressing on the add or subtract icon controls.

number input mouse and keyboard interactions


Users can navigate to the number input field by pressing Tab. Users can then increase the value by pressing Up arrow or decrease the value by pressing Down arrow.



An error state is triggered if the data is invalid or a required field is left empty. Error states have three visual indicators to signify invalid content: a red border, an error icon indicator, and an error message.

number input validation

Default values

Numeric input should always have a default. The default will usually be ‘1’. Sometimes, you will have input value defaulted to ‘0’. For example, when booking a hotel room, it may set the default number of adults as ‘1’ and the default number of children as ‘0’.

Do set default for input value

Do set a clear default that most users are likely to select

Do not leave value input blank

Do not leave value input blank

  • Use slider when numeric values are large or when there is a wide range of numeric options.
  • When the exact value is important to specify within a wide range, use text input instead.


Yuxuan (Tammy) Zhou, Design Guidelines for Input Steppers (Nielsen Norman Group, 2018)


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